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Heavy industry is responsible for large amounts of carbon emissions, but this briefing from consultancy Ecofys argues that reductions of between 30% and 50% could be achieved in the cement and steel sectors through improvements in efficiency and decarbonisation of energy supplies.
Other options include adoption of low-carbon technology, adapting supply chain loops to circular economy principles of re-using or minimising waste, product substitution, and carbon capture and storage where complete decarbonisation is not possible.